Ricky B, Richard M
The Battle Of Ypres!

The First Battle of Ypres, (The first battle of flanders) is the first battle fought for the town of Ypres,
located in western Belgium.
The main reason for this battle was the British's desire to control the English Channel Ports,
and the British Army's Supply Lines.
The main reason for this battle was the British's desire to control the English Channel Ports, troopscarryingwounded.jpgand the British Army's Supply Lines.7.jpg
During the battle of ypres the germans used the first biological warfare...
Chlorine gas which caused people to suficate and die.
No land was gained during the war or at least very little and 6000 Canadians were killed or wounded.

Basicaly the war went back and forth between france,
and germany were they numerously tried to flank each other out by either heading north and then west.gasmasks.jpg
Besides the gas attack not much else happened.
The battle of ypres was bassically a recovery attack from the previouse battle of Marne were germany was on a race to the sea.

The main reason for the Ypres battle was the British desire to secure the English Channel ports and the British Army's supply lines.
Ypres was the last major obstacle to the German advance on Boulogne-sur-Mer and Calais.
Neither armies could decide which plan they wanted to do untill the allied forces finally decided to say basicaly hold ground and stay their.map.jpg
(1)“The Old Contemptibles” disappeared to be replaced by fresh reserves which eventually turned into a mass conscripted Army to match its Allies and enemies.

Although both sides were heavily wounded and the death tolls were high for both the allies managed to hold together and win this battle.
The germans reffered to this fight as "The Massacre of the Innocents of Ypres"

During the battle of Ypres the germans came up with the schlieffen plan.
Basically this meant that the germans wanted to take paris through belgum and head down to the swiss border where they could do whatever.
Unfortunately the poor schlieffen plan forced Great Britain to join frances side and help them hold their defence. (1)

(3) Date of Battle of Ypres 1915:

April 22 to 24, 1915

Location of Battle of Ypres 1915:

Near Ypres, Belgium

Canadian Troops at Ypres 1915:

1st Canadian Division

Canadian Casualties at the Battle of Ypres 1915:

6035 Canadian casualties in 48 hours
More than 2000 Canadians died

Canadian Honours at the Battle of Ypres 1915:

Four Canadians won the Victoria Cross at the Battle of Ypres in 1915:
  • Edward Donald Bellew
  • Frederick "Bud" Fisher
  • Frederick William Hall
  • Francis Alexander Scrimger

Summary of the Battle of Ypres 1915:

  • The 1st Canadian Division had just arrived at the front and were moved to Ypres Salient, a bulge in front of the City of Ypres in Belgium.
  • The Germans held the high ground.
  • The Canadians had two British divisions on their right, and two French army divisions on their left.
  • On April 22, after an artillery bombardment, the Germans released 5700 cylinders of chlorine gas. The green chlorine gas was heavier than air and sank into the trenches forcing soldiers out. The gas attack was followed by strong infantry assaults. The French defences were forced to retreat, leaving a four-mile wide hole in the Allied line.
  • The Germans did not have enough reserves or protection against the chlorine gas for their own troops to take immediate advantage of the gap.
  • The Canadians fought through the night to close the gap.
  • On the first night, the Canadians launched a counter-attack to drive the Germans out of Kitchener's Wood near St. Julien. The Canadians cleared the woods, but had to retire. More attacks that night resulted in disastrous casualties, but bought some time to close the gap.
  • Two days later the Germans attacked the Canadian line at St. Julien, again using chlorine gas. The Canadians held on until reinforcements arrived.

About the Battle of Ypres 1915:
The battle of Ypres established the canadians as a fighting force, in 1915. The 1st canadian section to arrive upon the western front when they won recognition, by holding their ground against a new weapon of warfare - chlorine gas.

During the war, John McCrae wrote the poem, "In Flanders Fields", when his close friend was killed, this was just one of the 6000 casualties in just a matter of 48 hours

(5) At approximately 5pm, april 22, french centuries noticed gas movement towards them, that was released from gas canisters (pressurized cylinders), from the german front lines, Between streenstraat and langemarck. French thought it was a distraction to disguise movement of german troops. Troops were ordered to front lines, directly in the path of chlorine. The inpact was immediate, and devistating, French and Algerian troops fled in terror. Germans tried to advance into ypres stealthily, but, surprised by the effect fo chlorine, and were forced to retreat.

(Primary Source 1) Interview with Joseph Joffre.
"On leaving Antwerp on October 9th the Belgian army, which was covered by 8,000 British blue-jackets and 6,000 French blue-jackets, at first intended to retire as far as to the north of Calais, but afterwards determined to make a stand in Belgian territory.
Unfortunately, the condition of the Belgian troops, exhausted by a struggle of more than three months, did not allow any immediate hopes to be based upon them. This situation weighed on our plans and delayed their execution.
On the 16th we made progress to the east of Ypres. On the 18th our cavalry even reached Roulers and Cortemark. But it was now evident that, in view of the continual reinforcing of the German right, our left was not capable of maintaining the advantages obtained during the previous few days. To attain our end and make our front inviolable a fresh effort was necessary. That effort was immediately made by the dispatch to the north of the Lys of considerable French forces, which formed the French army of Belgium."

(Primary source 2) Interview with Sir David Watson On the third battle of Ypres.

What a sacrifice this operation entailed, and yet so necessary in the great final victory.
No one of us, who had previous experience of the Ypres Salient fighting, could anticipate without horror and dread, the orders received for the great effort and still greater sacrifices of Passchendaele. The approaches to the front, and on beyond, were simply beyond description. Wastes of mud, destroyed houses, roads torn up by constant shelling and above all, the vile weather conditions, that made life a burden.
Sir Douglas Haig, at a conference with the Canadian Generals some days prior to the attack, stated that the Canadian Corps would be the determining factor, for the date of the operation, as ours was the big effort, all the others being subsidiary to our main operation of the capture of Bellevue Spur, Crest Farm, and Passchendaele itself.

(1) First World War.com - A Multimedia History of World War Onehttp://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/ypres1.htm

(2)"First Battle of Ypres - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia."Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. .

(3) http://canadaonline.about.com/od/ww1battles/p/ypres.htm "Battle of Ypres 1915 - Canadians Meet Chlorine Gas at the Second Battle of Ypres." Canada Online - About Canadian Government - Services News Issues and History. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2010.

(4) See A. Farrar-Hockley, Death of an Army (1967); E. N. Gladden, Ypres, 1917 (1967). "battles of Ypres." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Retrieved February 15, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Ypres-ba.html

(5) http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/poison_gas_and_world_one.htm "History Learning Site." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/poison_gas_and_world_one.htm>.