File:Hawthorn Ridge mine 1 July 1916.jpg
File:Hawthorn Ridge mine 1 July 1916.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hawthorn_Ridge_mine_1_July_1916.jpg

Belligerents
United Kingdom
United Kingdom


France
France


Canada
Canada


Australia
Australia


New Zealand
New Zealand


South Africa
South Africa


India
India


Dominion of Newfoundland
Dominion of Newfoundland

external image 22px-Flag_of_the_German_Empire.svg.png Germanysomme.jpg
http://www.metro.co.uk/news/newsfocus/447858-letting-the-reel-truth-be-told

external image 25076_Battle-of-the-somme-2.jpgexternal image somme1.jpg
http://www.1914-1918.net/PIX/somme1.jpg
http://www.moviemail-online.co.uk/film/dvd/The-Battle-of-the-Somme/


The Battle of the Somme was also known as the Somme Offensive. This battle was also the first introduction of the use of the tank. It was located astride the Somme River, North-Central Somme and in the South-eastern Pas-de-Calais D├ępartements, France. The battle of the Somme had been a big source of historical controversy having senior officers. Henry Rawlinson commanded the Fourth Army and General Sir Douglas Haig commanded the British B.E.F. (British Expeditionary Force). They were both criticised for some very severe losses while failing to succeed at achieving their objectives. The battle was fought in the first French war, July 1 to November 13, 1916. It was fought in the Somme department of France on both banks of the river. Germany had earlier invaded France in August 1914 and had occupied large areas of the country. So the British and French both attacked the German Empire and it was one of the largest battles of the First World War. The Battle of the Somme was said to be the bloodiest military operations ever recorded and there were over 1.5 million casualties. The first day of the battle on July 1, 1916, saw the British Army suffer the worst one-day combat losses in the history of the war with almost 60,000 casualties. The British Army was a volunteered force in this battle with men from specific local areas and that meant that these losses had a huge social impact on Britain and also the Dominion of Newfoundland and gave the battle a lasting cultural legacy in England. Many Historians have said that the Somme was a vital preliminary to the defeat of the German Army. It was a battle which taught the British Army some good tactical and operational lessons. The Somme evolved from Allied strategic discussions at Chantilly, Oise in December 1915. It was led by the commander-in-chief of the French Army, General Joseph Joffre and allied representatives agreed on a concerted offense against the Central Powers (Germany, Austro-Hungarians, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire) by the French, British, Italian and Russians in 1916. The allied British and French contribution to the Somme offensive was intended to create a rupture in the German line which could be finished by a decisive blow. Germany attacked Verdun in February 1916 and the Allied plans were forced to adapt. The British Army took over the Somme but the French contribution was still important. By the eexternal image royal_irish_rifles_ration_party_somme_july_1916.jpgnd of the battle the France and Britain had penetrated a total of 6 miles into the German occupied territory. Though the English had taken over much of Germans territory they failed to capture many objectives such as Bapaume and Le Transloy or any other French town. The British high command had anticipated to take Germany out but the Germans had still occupied partially entrenched areas. The battle of the Somme resulted in the German Army having to back up 40 miles to the Hindenburg line from February to March in 1917. It was a Tactical and Strategic Entente victory.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Somme



VIDEO

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Tv5gBa9DQsexternal image Western_Front_Somme_focus.jpg


|| Commanders ||

||
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Douglas Haig
France
France
Ferdinand Foch ||

||
German Empire
German Empire
Max von Gallwitz
German Empire
German Empire
Fritz von Below ||

|| Casualties and losses ||

|| 620,000 casualties, 100 tanks lost, 782 aircraft lost ||

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Somme The Battle Of Somme






Primary Source 1
Crown Prince Rupprecht
Crown Prince Rupprecht
1st July 1916 saw the onset of the predominantly British-led Somme Offensive. Planned as a means of relieving German pressure upon the French at Verdun, and viewed by British Commander-in-Chief Sir Douglas Haig as a means of achieving a breakthrough on the Western Front, the offensive opened with significant British casualties, some 60,000 on the first day alone. The British had mistakenly expected German resistance to be crushed following a week-long preliminary bombardment of the German lines but instead found machine-gunners awaiting their infantry advance.
The Somme Offensive did not provide the much sought after breakthrough but largely resulted in continued trench stalemate, although some territorial gain was achieved by Allied forces. Casualty estimates vary widely: the Allied losses (chiefly British and French) have been put at 600,000 with German casualties estimated to be 500,000.
Reproduced below is the summary written by German commander Crown Prince Rupprecht.


Primary Source 2
Philip Gibbs
Philip Gibbs
1st July 1916 saw the onset of the predominantly British-led Somme Offensive. Planned as a means of relieving German pressure upon the French at Verdun, and viewed by British Commander-in-Chief Sir Douglas Haig as a means of achieving a breakthrough on the Western Front, the offensive opened with significant British casualties, some 60,000 on the first day alone. The British had mistakenly expected German resistance to be crushed following a week-long preliminary bombardment of the German lines but instead found machine-gunners awaiting their infantry advance.
The Somme Offensive did not provide the much sought after breakthrough but largely resulted in continued trench stalemate, although some territorial gain was achieved by Allied forces. Casualty estimates vary widely: the Allied losses (chiefly British and French) have been put at 600,000 with German casualties estimated to be 500,000.
Reproduced below is a summary of the opening of the offensive by one of Britain's official war reporters, Philip Gibbs. Written during wartime, and given his official position, his account is accordingly upbeat.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/somme_rupprecht.htm



Additional Information

**http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Somme**
**http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/somme.htm**
**http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/somme.htm**
**http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=history/firstwar/canada/Canada8**
**http://www.heritage.nf.ca/greatwar/articles/somme.html**
**http://www.ramsdale.org/somme.htm**
**http://wwii.ca/forums/showthread.php?t=257**
**http://www.johndclare.net/wwi2_FirstDay_BeaumontHamel_canadianaccount.htm**

References

Trueman, Chris . "History Learning Site." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2010. http://www.historylearningsite

"First World War.com - A Multimedia History of World War One." First World War.com - A Multimedia History of World War One. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2010. <http://www.firstworldwar.com>.

"Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage/Patrimoine de Terre-Neuve et du Labrador--Entry Page: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage." Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage/Patrimoine de Terre-Neuve et du Labrador--Entry Page: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2010. <http://www.heritage.nf.ca>.

"Veterans Affairs Canada - Anciens Combattants Canada." Veterans Affairs Canada - Anciens Combattants Canada. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2010. <http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca>.

"Wikipedia." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2010. <http://www.wikipedia.org>.




The Battle of the Somme
Zakk & Eunice